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Cranial autonomic ganglia, nasal olfactory cells, and the orbital muscle were investigated using immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase, vasoactive intestinal peptide, calretinin, and smooth muscle actin expression. The surface gross anatomy of the fetus appeared normal. The left eyeball lacked a lens (the eyeballs were otherwise normal). The orbital muscle was very thick and located in the anterolateral side of the extraocular muscles. Conversely, the extraocular muscles made a cluster in the superoposterior side of the orbit. The infratemporal fossa http://www.selleckchem.com/products/carfilzomib-pr-171.html was small due to the bulky, transversely extended lateral pterygoid process in contrast to the small coronoid process of the mandible. The bilateral mandibular bases overlapped at the midline symphysis. The thin orbitosphenoid and thick alisphenoid provided an almost flat, anterior cranial base. Nasal olfactory cells and cranial autonomic ganglia appeared to be normal. No major anomaly was observed in the brain. Because of the changes in topographical anatomy, the orbital muscle probably lost its normal bony attachment and appeared to push the extraocular AZD9291 molecular weight muscles superoposteriorly. A gene function redundancy rather than mutation may explain the present restricted anomalies in the mandible and pterygoid process. Clin. Anat. 24:599�C606, 2011. ? 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. ""The extraocular muscles (EOM), the effector arm of the ocular motor system, have a unique embryological origin and phenotype. The naked mole-rat (NMR) is a subterranean YES1 rodent with an underdeveloped visual system. It has not been established if their ocular motor system is also less developed. The NMR is an ideal model to examine the potential codependence of oculomotor and visual system development and evolution. Our goal was to compare the structural features of NMR EOMs to those of the mouse, a similar sized rodent with a fully developed visual system. Perfusion-fixed whole orbits and EOMs were dissected from adult NMR and C57BL mice and examined by light and electron microscopy. NMR orbital anatomy showed smaller EOMs in roughly the same distribution around the eye as in mouse and surrounded by a very small Harderian gland. The NMR EOMs did not appear to have the two-layer fiber distribution seen in mouse EOMs; fibers were also significantly smaller (112.3 �� 46.2 vs. 550.7 �� 226 sq ��m in mouse EOMs, *P < 0.05). Myofibrillar density was less in NMR EOMs, and triad and other membranous structures were rudimentary. Finally, mitochondrial volume density was significantly less in NMR EOMs than in mouse EOM (4.5% �� 1.9 vs. 21.2% �� 11.6, respectively, *P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that NMR EOMs are smaller and less organized than those in the mouse. The ��simpler�� EOM organization and structure in NMR may be explained by the poor visual ability of these rodents, initially demonstrated by their primitive visual system. Anat Rec, 2010. ? 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.