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Age has been previously linked to polyomavirus quantitative serology response.[15, 17] However, we did not find any significant correlation for continuous data (r?=?0.016, p-value= 0.653 for MCV and r?=?0.074, p-value?=?0.070 for BKV) nor for median age comparison of seroreactivity among tertiles (p-value?=?0.338 and p-value?=?0.103, for MCV and BKV respectively). Regarding a possible relation between viruses, there was no association for BKV and MCV seroprevalence (p-value?=?0.90). Among control subjects seropositive for both viruses (n?=?488), no correlation was observed between continuous data (r?=??0.004, p-value?=?0.926) neither an association between MCV and BKV serology tertiles (p-value?=?0.170). Additionally, further analyses were done to rule out a different serological behavior by any of the hospital admission subgroup among controls. No differences in seroprevalence neither in seroreactivities were observed R428 between control subgroups. Table 3 shows the associations observed between bladder cancer and each polyomavirus seroreactivity. Cases had a higher seroprevalence for BKV polyomavirus than controls (64% vs. 60%), although this difference was only marginally significant (OR?=?1.19, 95%CI?=?0.99�C1.43). No significant differences for MCV seroprevalence (83% vs. 82%) were observed while JCV seroprevalence was slightly Palbociclib higher in cases (87% vs. 83%, p-value?=?0.114). Among seropositive subjects, higher median seroreactivities were observed in cases both for BKV (0.84 vs. 0.70, p-value?=?0.009) and MCV (1.81 vs. 0.65, p-value?<?0.001) when compared to control subjects, and an increasing risk was observed by levels of seroreactivity evaluated as a continuous exposure variable through a GAM model. No association was found with JCV. Categorization <a href="">PI3K inhibitor of seroreactivity of BKV and MCV into tertiles confirmed this increase in bladder cancer risk after adjustment by possible confounding factors (Table 3). Risk of bladder cancer was significantly increased in subjects highly reactive to BKV (OR?=?1.37, 95%CI?=?1.04�C1.80) when compared to those of low seroreactivity (first tertile) to this virus. A similar increased risk was observed in those highly reactive to MCV (OR?=?1.48, 95%CI?=?1.16�C1.88) when compared to those of low seroreactivity (first tertile) to MCV. These results were not modified when models were mutually adjusted for the seroresponse to the other virus (Supporting Information Fig. S1) among subjects positive for serum antibodies to both viruses (n?=?1,094). Evaluation of dose�Cresponse incorporating seronegative subjects as reference category resulted in even stronger trends for BKV (p-value?=?0.007) and similar for MCV (p-value?=?0.015). Sensitivity analysis by exclusion of cases with nonurothelial-cell bladder cancer (n?=?16) did not change results. ORs by disease subphenotype for high versus low seroreactivity to BKV and MCV are shown in Figure 1.