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Some stable mutants exhibited substantial biological activities when tested by JunD-dependent transactivation assay. These findings suggest that certain missense and in-frame mutations are fairly stable and retain intrinsic biological activity, and might be specifically associated with incomplete clinical phenotypes. The menin stability test will provide useful information for the management of patients carrying germline MEN1 mutations especially when they have missense or in-frame variants of ambiguous clinical significance. (Cancer Sci 2011; 102: 2097�C2102) ""We recently found that TMPRSS2:ERG fusion genes and PTEN loss, which are common in Western prostate cancers are infrequent in Chinese cases. As previous learn more studies indicated a higher frequency of RAS and BRAF mutation rates in Eastern Asian than in Western prostate cancers and fusion genes involving the RAF family genes BRAF and RAF1 were recently identified in prostate cancer in the American population, we investigated BRAF and RAF1 alterations in Chinese prostate cancer. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we found that BRAF was truncated in five of 200 informative Chinese cases (2.5%) and that RAF1 was truncated in three of 204 informative cases (1.5%) and genomic rearrangements of these genes were significantly correlated with high Gleason scores (>7; P < 0.01) and have a trend to appear in high clinical stage disease. A high frequency of BRAF and RAF1 copy number gain was found (29 and 15%, respectively). BRAF copy number gain in Chinese cancers was significantly higher than in UK cases (9.2%)(P < 0.001) and correlated R428 with a number of clinical parameters. High-level expression of BRAF was found by immunohistochemistry in Chinese cancer samples compared with adjacent nonmalignant epithelial cells, which was correlated with high BRAF copy number. We also identified KRAS codon 12 mutations in three of 96 Chinese cases, no BRAF V600E mutations were observed. Our finding suggests that the activation Everolimus molecular weight of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway may be frequent in Chinese prostate cancer, with RAF gene copy number gain potentially being the main contributor. ? 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ""Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurs frequently after minimally invasive therapy. The aim of our study was to observe the efficiency and safety of the combined treatment of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with cellular immunotherapy (CIT) for HCC patients. In our study, 62 patients with HCC who were treated with radical RFA were divided into two groups: RFA alone (32 patients) and RFA/CIT (30 patients). Autologous mononuclear cells were collected from the peripheral blood and separated by apheresis, and then induced into natural killer (NK) cells, �æ�T cells and cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells. These cells were identified by flow cytometry with their specific antibodies and then were infused intravenously to RFA/CIT patients for three or six courses.