Despite the significant improvement in characterizing mitochondrial autophagyrelatively little is well known about the genes

However, it is not possible to assess the levels of both HMW- and LMW-AGEs using any of the current approaches. Subjecting foods to heating results in the formation of various AGE molecules, with the types of AGEs produced depending on the heat treatment method employed and the food involved. Unfortunately, most previous studies only examined the levels of a small number of AGE molecules because of methodological issues. The majority of studies of AGEs have focused on representative molecules, particularly CML. Based on assessments of CML levels obtained with ELISA, a database of food products and their AGE concentrations has been produced. Foods containing elevated levels of protein and fat, meat substitutes, and processed meats were found to display markedly increased AGE concentrations. However, discrepancies have been detected between the information in the abovementioned database and the data obtained using other approaches, which indicates that more accurate methods for analyzing AGE levels are required. As AGEs are produced when food is heated, eating processed foods, which are subjected to high temperatures during their production, results in greater exposure to AGEs. The Maillard reaction, in which sugar groups react with proteins and cross-links form between proteins, is responsible for AGE synthesis during the heating of foodstuffs. Conversely, CML is colorless and does not promote protein cross-linking or fluoresce. There are no established methods for evaluating the serum concentrations of AGEs. Whilst most studies of AGEs have examined CML levels, the role played by CML in pathological conditions is poorly understood. Although numerous other AGE structures are known to exist, little is known about which AGEs make significant contributions to disease. In previous studies, we found that the serum concentrations of Glycer-AGEs, but not those of Glu-AGEs, CML, or HbA1c, could be useful biomarkers for predicting the development of cardiovascular events and atherosclerosis. Hence, in the present study we subjected a range of foods and beverages that are commonly consumed in Japan to testing in order to determine their AGE concentrations. The present study indicates that CML is not a suitable biomarker of dietary AGE consumption. The findings of the present study indicate that people should not consume excessive amounts of particular types of food such as cereals, dried fruits, seasonings, prepared foods, and confectionery or certain beverages, particularly sugar-sweetened fruit drinks, lactic acid bacteria beverages, mixed fruit juices, sports drinks, and carbonated drinks. Interestingly, the present study demonstrated that a markedly greater number of foods and beverages contain Glu-AGEs than Fru-AGEs, even among dried fruit products and fruit juices, which contain large amounts of fructose. During glycation, the initial kinetics of the reaction are affected by the protein involved, the temperature at which the reaction occurs, the concentration of the reducing sugar, and the percentage of the reducing sugar that possesses an open-chain structure. Compared with glucose, a greater proportion of fructose exhibits an open-chain structure. Studies of glycation have found that the initial rates of fructose-adduct formation are increased in Hb; however, glucose and fructose display similar levels of reactivity with RNase A, and glucose reacts with albumin 8 times more readily than fructose. The discrepancies between these findings might be due to differences in the local conditions at the reaction sites. A Japanese study examined the amounts of glucose and fructose in various fruits. In addition, in an examination of the expression profiles of endothelial cells extracted from the latter patients’ serum samples the mRNA expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein- 1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and RAGE were found to be significantly downregulated in the cells acquired after AST-120 treatment compared with those seen in the endothelial cells obtained prior to treatment. The latter results indicated that the consumption of Glu-AGEs might contribute to the development of vascular damage in pathological conditions linked to Glycer-AGE-RAGE interactions. Furthermore, they suggest that reducing the absorption of dietary Glu-AGEs might be a useful strategy for treating lifestyle-related conditions.